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The team is the Philadelphia Eagles, a group of players assembled in the iconoclastic image of their former head coach, Buddy Ryan, who are known throughout the NFL for their ferocious defense led by Reggie White, Seth Joyner, and Andre Waters, and for the otherworldly talents of their mercurial quarterback Randall Cunningham. His book overflows with stories of pro football dreams, of bravery in the face of injury. Yet it also unflinchingly tells of the darker side of life in the NFL: uncontrolled egos, ruined families, marital infidelity. He is weary, but patient. He knows exactly where these kids are coming from. The millionaire star defensive lineman of the Philadelphia Eagles knows all about the Gimme!

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. The following series of concise summaries addresses the evolution of infectious agents in relation to sex in animals and humans from the perspective of three specific questions: 1 what have we learned about the likely origin and phylogeny, up to the establishment of the infectious agent in the genital econiche, including the relative frequency of its sexual transmission; 2 what further research is needed to provide additional knowledge on some of these evolutionary aspects; and 3 what evolutionary considerations might aid in providing novel approaches to the more practical clinical and public health issues facing us currently and in the future?

At present there are approximately 3, described species of lice. Recent molecular data suggests that lice are paraphyletic with the Psocoptera book and bark licewhich would mean that obligate parasitism of birds and mammals evolved more than once within what is now known as Phthiraptera.

Within the Phthiraptera resides the Suborder Anoplura, which contains the obligate blood feeding lice of mammals.

This clade of approximately species is monophyletic based on morphological and molecular data. Within the Anoplura are the species of lice that infest humans, which are of interest here.

There are three types of lice that infest humans, clothing lice, head lice, and pubic lice. Clothing lice also called body lice and head lice are two morphotypes of a single species, Pediculus humanus. Humans are also infested with the pubic louse Pthirus pubiswhich is the family Pthiridae. Humans likely acquired this parasite from a gorilla-like ancestor about three million years ago. The presence of pubic lice is correlated with the presence of other sexually transmitted infections, but the lice themselves are not known to be vectors of sexually transmitted diseases.

The evolutionary events that led pubic lice to their current ecological niche are only partially known. Reed et al. It is possible that humans had already lost much of their body hair, which caused lice of the genus Pediculus to retreat to head hair, leaving the pubic niche available for colonization.

However, this also ps that humans had already developed pubic hair, which is absent in other great apes, and develops at sexual maturity.

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The evolutionary loss of body hair, the development of pubic hair, and the later development of clothing in humans are watershed events in the evolutionary history of lice, and likely spawned the birth of new louse lineages.

Infestations are easy to acquire and sometimes difficult to eradicate.

Permethrin-based products are often used to treat phthiriasis; and unlike head lice, pubic lice do not appear to be widely resistant to its use. The prevalence of pubic lice is declining in certain developed countries among men and women that remove their pubic hair. The lice of the genus Pediculus have provided great insight into primate and human evolutionary history—they have told us that chimps began wearing clothingyears ago, prior to leaving Africa, 8 and that modern humans had direct physical contact with archaic hominids perhaps around 25, years ago.

Furthermore, because Pthirus is a sexually transmitted parasite, its coevolutionary history with humans may differ from that of the fucking casually transmitted lice of the genus Pediculus. For example, there is strong evidence that head lice from Neanderthals made it onto modern humans, where traces of this host switch can still be seen in louse DNA. Similar frogs are needed to sequence the genome of the pubic louse to better understand its similarities and differences to Pediculus.

The genome of Pediculus was incredibly small, owing to the reduced and simple environment that the louse lives within. A comparison to another louse living in roughly the same environment would be very useful.

Whether the two different types of lice have similar gene composition will help us to understand how the external environment shapes genome evolution. The treatment of pediculosis is a billion dollar industry, and new treatments are constantly being sought.

Chimpanzee

One such method uses hot air to kill lice and their eggs with no discomfort to the patient. Scabies is one of the great epidemic diseases of man. Not only are humans affected by the common itch mite Sarcoptes scabieibut also numerous species of animals. Host species are infested with different variants of the same genus and species of mite, as is true in a of other animal hosts—reflecting the overall observation that ectoparasites tend to be very host specific. Sarcoptic mange in animals and infestations in humans date back to antiquity, with some historians noting that Aristotle described these as lice-like creatures of the skin.

However, most historians credit Avenzoar, the Moorish physician, and his student Averroes of Seville in the 12th century, with accurately describing the mites.

Successive discoveries and descriptions were detailed by St. Hildegarde 12th centuryAugust Hauptmann inand Giovanni Bonomo inwho described and drew the mite. Finally a senior medical student in Paris, France, Simon Francois Renucci, extracted a mite from a female patient in August, with a needle probe—a technique he learned from peasant women in his native Corsica—to usher in the modern era of scabies diagnosis. Scabies mites are transmitted by skin-to-skin con-tact, including sexual contact; after varying periods of time, usually three to six weeks, hypersensitivity develops to metabolites and secretions of the mites that result in pruritis, especially in the evening, and prompts patients to seek treatment.

Diagnosis can be determined most commonly by skin scrapings examined microscopically with mineral oil author RWC prefers microscopic immersion oil. Observing adult and larval mites, eggs, and scybala discrete golden brown fecal pellets are confirmatory. Since most otherwise healthy patients have fewer than 15 adult mites, it is important to collect sufficient scrapings to ensure a reasonable chance of recovering a mite.

A slightly less traumatic and very specific method to identify scabies is needle extraction with the aid of a loupe or hand lens.

In the UK and Commonwealth, benzyl benzoate preparations are d for treatment of scabies as well. How did humans become colonized with S. The scientific consensus is that humans, and protohumans before them, were the principal hosts for Sarcoptes mites.

These species were more susceptible, likely because domestication per se tended to reduce immunocompetence and, thus, increased the probability of mites adapting to new hosts.

Transmission of Sarcoptes in both humans and animals is by direct contact in most situations, but indirect contact may serve a role depending on crowding and individual host mite populations. In modern humans, sexual transmission is important especially among sexually active young people, who may further transmit the mite during care of young children. Scabies is, or should be, routinely considered in the framework of screening patients at risk for other sexually transmitted infections STIs.

Animal agents

In evolutionary terms, humans may have become partially protected through the advent of clothing, with social trends towards monogamous relationships also reducing risk of exposure. Walton et al. Heretofore there have been no definitive means to distinguish taxonomically the various strains that manifest a fairly high degree of host specificity for their respective host species. As such, even if humans are infested, as well as their dogs, it would not require elaborate coordinated efforts to treat both groups simultaneously.

Interestingly, these evolutionary studies in aboriginal indigenous communities in northern Australia with endemic scabies have led to changes in health policies at the regional level, with the development of cost effective public health intervention programs that are directed at humans only.

Future research would best be directed at defining parasitic secretions and hidden antigens and their role in stimulating and modulating host immune responses. Better definition of S. Clearly, one of the major difficulties of managing scabies infestations in humans, as well as in animals, is recognizing infested hosts.

An immunological test for diagnosis based on mite proteins would be most welcome. Another issue is the evidence for an inverse relation between parasites and allergy, as noted by Walton et al. Those who suffer from house dust mite HDM allergy may have reduced or possibly increased symptoms of scabies and presumably the reverse—thosewith scabies could have a reduced or increased susceptibility to HDM antigens. Investigating the evolutionary relationship of house dust and scabies mites, as well as their cross-antigenicity, may lead to improved diagnostics for both scabies and HDM allergy and potentially protective immunoprophylaxis for asthma.

Trichomon are protozoa of the class Parabasalia that inhabit the alimentary canals or urogenital tracts of vertebrates and insects.

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Members are characterized by having three to five anterior flagella, and many species have highly diverged mitochondrion-like organelles called hydrogenosomes. Trichomon inhabit vertebrate hosts ranging from reptiles and amphibians to pigs and humans.

Most are considered commensal, but even these can cause diarrhea and abdominal pain, as is the case for Pentatrichomonas hominisa commensal found in the gastrointestinal tracts of several mammals. Three species of trichomon are generally recognized as pathogens: Trichomonas gallinaeTrichomonas vaginalisand Tritrichomonas foetus. The remaining two species are sexually transmitted parasites that reside in the urogenital tracts of humans and cattle, respectively. The parasite adheres to the lining of the urogenital tracts of both men and women and can result in reproductive health sequelae, including pelvic inflammatory disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes, and has been associated with an increased risk in HIV transmission.

Comparable to T. Bovine trichomoniasis can also lead to severe consequences, such as infertility and abortion. Both T. With these similarities in mind, it is tempting to speculate that trichomoniasis is shared between cows and humans. Both Trichomonas and Tritrichomonas are genera composed of a large of gastrointestinal Parabasalids, suggesting that T. Indeed, T. Instances of inferred convergent evolution provide an opportunity to compare derived similarities, in order to identify common traits that coincide with the shared niche.

In the case of T. Genomics will be a powerful tool in determining this evolutionary history. The T. These gene expansions may have occurred after some evolutionary event, such as the reduction in effective population size, 26 which could have followed the transition of the parasite from an enteric to a urogenital environment.

However, a drastic increase in genome size over a short period of evolutionary time is typically detrimental, 27 making it unlikely that such a trait would have been fixed by genetic drift alone; rather, it must have provided some selective advantage to the organism in its new environment.

These advantages may have allowed T. One way to test this hypothesis would be to look for similar evolutionary tendencies in the T. It has been suggested that gene family expansions are common among Parabasalids, 30 which we have confirmed through Roche sequencing of the T.

Consistent with the difference in percentage of genome repeats, T.